眞葛焼の創始者 「宮川香山」Founder of Makuzu-yaki “Kozan Miyagawa”

東京国立博物館所蔵 重要文化財 「褐釉蟹貼付水鉢」宮川香山(初代)Important Cultural Property “Brown Glazed Crab Sticking Water Bowl” Kozan Miyagawa (1st generation)

今回は私がよく図案の参考にさせていただいている人物の一人。日本の伝統工芸、陶芸の日本を代表する明治時代の陶磁器の名工「宮川香山」についてご紹介したいと思います。

This time, one of the people I often use as a reference for designs. I would like to introduce “Makuzu Kozan,” a potter from the Meiji era that represents Japan’s traditional Japanese crafts and ceramics.

日本ではあまり知られていないように思いますが、眞葛焼の創始者として海外ではよく知られており、「Makuzu Kozan」とも呼ばれているようです。Google翻訳でも「宮川香山」で英訳すると「Makuzu Kozan」になります。

I don’t think it is well known in Japan, but it is well known overseas as the founder of Makuzu-yaki, and it seems that it is also called “Makuzu Kozan”.

宮川香山(初代)(founder) Kozan Miyagawa

帝室技芸員 Imperial artist

明治時代に発足した帝室技芸員の中で陶芸界では5名のみ選ばれています。宮川香山はそのうちの一人です。

Among the imperial artists established in the Meiji era, only five are selected in the ceramic art world. Kozan Miyagawa is one of them.

認定年
Certification year
任命者 Certified person当時年齢
Age at that time
1893(三代) 清風與平(与平) (Third generation) Yohei Seifu42
1896(初代) 宮川香山 (founder) Kozan Miyagawa54
1917(初代) 伊東陶山 (founder) Tozan Ito71
1917(初代) 諏訪蘇山 (founder) Sozan Suwa66
1934板谷波山 Hazan Itaya62

定員数の少ない帝室技芸員に選ばれることは今の人間国宝より遥かに難しいことだったとされています。

It is said that it was much more difficult to be selected as an imperial artist with a small capacity than the living national treasure of today.

蒔絵の帝室技芸員については過去の投稿をご参照ください。

Please refer to the past posts for the Imperial Artist of Makie.

宮川香山 略歴 Biography of Kozan Miyagawa

年 Year歳 Age出来事 Event
18420本名:虎之助
京都の真葛ヶ原(現材の円山公園)生まれ
宮川長造の四男
Real name: Toranosuke
Born in Makuzugahara, Kyoto (currently Maruyama Park)
The fourth son of Chozo Miyagawa
18519父が真葛ヶ原に本窯を築く
明治時代の皇族・安井宮から「真葛焼」の名称を賜る
父に陶芸の技術を学ぶ
皇族・華頂宮から「香山」の号を賜る
Father builds a main kiln in Makuzugahara
Received the name “Makuzuyaki” from the Meiji era royal family, Yasuinomiya
Learn pottery techniques from his father
Received the title of “Kozan” from the imperial family, Kachō-no-miya
186018同年に父、兄が没し、家督を継ぐ
In the same year, his father and brother died and succeeded the family.
186624幕府からの依頼
→朝廷に献上する煎茶器大揃を制作
Request from the Shogunate
→ Produced a large collection of sencha ware to be presented to the imperial court
187028横浜へ移住 Moved to Yokohama
187129現在の横浜市に窯を開き、「眞葛焼」と号した
本格的な海外輸出用の陶磁器制作開始
Opened a kiln in the current city of Yokohama and called it “Makuzuyaki”
Started full-scale production of ceramics for overseas export
187634フィラデルフィア万博 銅牌受賞
窯場火災
Received the Bronze Medal at the Philadelphia Expo
Kiln fire damage
187735第6回京都博覧会 銀牌受賞
第1回内国勧業博覧会 龍紋賞牌受賞
Received a silver medal at the 6th Kyoto Exhibition
Received the Dragon Crest Award at the 1st National Industrial Exhibition
187836第7回京都博覧会 一等褒賞受賞
パリ万博 金牌受賞
Received the first prize at the 7th Kyoto Exhibition
Winner of the Gold Exposition Universelle in Paris
187937シドニー万博 一等賞受賞
Received the first prize at the Sydney Expo
188038メルボルン万博 一等賞受賞
Winner of the Melbourne Expo First Prize
188139第二回内国勧業博覧会 有功賞牌一等受賞
神奈川県監獄本署の許可を得て、
懲役囚の中で陶器・七宝に通ずるものを100名雇用
Received the 1st prize of Merit Award at the 2nd National Industrial Exhibition
With the permission of the Kanagawa Prison Headquarters,
Employ 100 prisoners who are familiar with pottery and cloisonne
188240磁器生産にも本格的に取り組み始める
Started full-scale efforts for porcelain production
188341アムステルダム万博 銀牌受賞
Amsterdam Expo silver medal award
188846日本美術展覧会 銀牌受賞→皇后の御用品になる
兄の息子 半之助に家督を譲る
Japan Fine Arts Exhibition Silver medal award → Become an empress’s item
Hand over the family business to his brother’s son Hannosuke
188947パリ万博 金牌受賞
Winner of the Gold Exposition Universelle in Paris
189351シカゴ・コロンブス万博 金牌受賞
以後毎年国内外受賞を重ねる
(以下は万博の受賞歴のみ記載します)
Winner of the Chicago Columbus Expo Gold
Since then, he has received domestic and international awards every year.
(The following is only the award history of the Expo)
189654帝室技芸員に認定 Certified as an imperial artist
190058パリ万博 大賞受賞 Received the Grand Prize at the Paris Expo
190462セントルイス万博 名誉大賞受賞
Winner of the St. Louis World’s Fair Honorary Award
190563リエージュ万博 名誉大賞受賞
Received the Honorary Award at the Liege Expo
191472原因不明の失明状態に陥る
Fall into a state of blindness of unknown cause
191675本駒込の別邸で亡くなる
Died at Honkomagome’s villa
1917甥の半之助、2代目香山を襲名
Named his nephew Hannosuke, the second generation Kozan

宮川香山は若くして家督を継ぎ、亡くなる直前まで、毎年の受賞や後進の指導など年譜を辿るだけでも輝かしく、目まぐるしい陶芸一筋の人生を歩まれたようです。

Kozan Miyagawa succeeded the family at a young age, and until just before his death, he seemed to have lived a dizzying life of ceramic art, brilliantly just by tracing the chronology such as annual awards and guidance for younger generations.

今回年譜をたどって、香山が懲役囚を雇っていたことを初めて知りました。

いくら良い行いだと知っていても中々行動に移せる人は少ないのではないかと思う行為です。

Following the chronology this time, I learned for the first time that Kozan had hired a prisoner.

It is an act that I think that few people can take action even if they know that it is a good act.

香山は自分の技術の向上と作品制作への強い思いを持ち続けながら常に前を向いて制作していたそうです。彼が過去に囚われることなく先の未来を見て、人を信じて真摯に仕事していたことが伺える記録です。

Kozan seems to have always been looking forward while maintaining a strong desire to improve his skills and create works. It is a record that he looked at the future without being trapped in the past, believed in people and worked earnestly.

香山の陶芸制作の変移 Transition of ceramic art production in Kozan

香山の制作は下記の1から順番に変化していきます。Kozan’s production will change in order from 1 below.

  1. 京焼の色絵磁器 Kyo ware color painting porcelain
  2. 薩摩金襴手陶器 Satsuma Kinrande Pottery
  3. 金襴手と立体装飾磁器「高浮彫」Kinrande and three-dimensional decorative porcelain “high relief”
  4. 磁器制作中心(染付磁器や青磁)Production centered on porcelain (dyed porcelain and celadon)

宮川香山没後100年記念でサントリー美術館で催された展覧会では、香山の人生を辿る制作過程が展示されていました。香山といえば、高浮彫という立体感のある陶器や細かい絵付けが有名です。

しかしその後の磁器制作品も素晴らしく、国内のライバルは元よりフランスのセーブルやデンマークのロイヤル・コペンハーゲンの作品と常に激しく競い合い、時には影響を与えたともされています。

At the exhibition held at the Suntory Museum of Art to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Kozan, the production process that traces the life of Kozan was exhibited. He is famous for its high-relief pottery with a three-dimensional effect and detailed painting.

However, the porcelain productions after that were also wonderful, and it is said that domestic rivals always competed fiercely with the works of Sèvres in France and Royal Copenhagen in Denmark, and sometimes influenced them.

また帝室技芸員の任命は陶芸の分野では、香山が2人目です。

先に任命されていた清風與平は「陶器・陶工」の任命であったのに対して、香山は「陶業」での任命であったことから陶磁器制作の評価に加えて、国際競争力を有する経営手腕を同時に高く評価されたとされています。

Kozan is the second imperial artist to be appointed in the field of ceramic art.

Seifu Yohei, who had been appointed earlier, was appointed as a “pottery / potter”, while Kozan was appointed in the “pottery industry”. It is said that his management skills were highly evaluated at the same time.

香山作品の魅力 The charm of Kozan’s work

「高浮彫作品」”High relief work”

「高浮彫」とは、陶器の表面を彫刻または細工した造形物で装飾する香山の独創的な技法です。

“High relief” is Kozan’s original technique of decorating the surface of pottery with carved or crafted objects.

  • それまでの日本陶磁器の概念を覆すもの What overturns the concept of Japanese ceramics until then
  • 精緻で独創的 Elaborate and original
  • 装飾性が高い Highly decorative
  • モチーフの擬人化 Anthropomorphic motif
  • 立体的 Three-dimensional
  • 写実的 Realistic

以上のような様々な点から海外で高く評価されました。万博でも度重なる受賞が続きました。

海外では、値段も見ずに即決する人さえも多くいたそうです。

It was highly evaluated overseas from the above various points. Repeated awards were received at the Expo.

Overseas, many people even decided promptly without looking at the price.

これら高浮彫の香山の作品を「真葛焼」として売り出したことにより、香山の名前も「Makuzu Kozan」として知られることになったそうです。

現在でも香山の作品は「超絶技巧」と高く評価されています。

It is said that Kozan’s name became known as “Makuzu Kozan” by selling these high-relief Kozan works as “Makuzu-yaki”.

Even now, Kozan’s work is highly regarded as “transcendental technique”.

洗練された磁器作品 Sophisticated porcelain work

香山は40代から磁器制作にも挑戦しています。

46歳で家督を甥に譲って、釉薬と釉下彩の研究開発に没頭したそうです。

Kozan has been challenging porcelain production since his 40s.

At the age of 46, he handed over his family business to his nephew and devoted himself to the research and development of glaze and underglaze.

この当時欧米では、磁器に関しての評価の高まりの最中で香山はいち早く制作に取り入れました。

At that time, in Europe and the United States, Kozan was one of the first to incorporate porcelain into his production in the midst of growing praise.

シカゴ・コロンブス博覧会で出品した花瓶は、制作に非常に苦労し8年の歳月をかけて完成されたものだったそうです。苦心の作であったため、制作が終わった後香山が病気になってしまった程だそうです。

欧米人から「世界の陶器王」とまで称され名誉金牌を受賞しました。

The vase exhibited at the Chicago Columbus Expo is said to have been completed over eight years with great difficulty in production. It was a painstaking work, so it seems that Kayama got sick after the work was finished.

He was called the “King of Pottery in the World” by Westerners and received an honorary prize.

しかし、買い手が多くついたため、甥の半之助が割ったという逸話が残されています。

However, there is an anecdote that his nephew Hannosuke broke because there were many buyers.

東京国立博物館では出品作の中で残っている貴重な作品が所蔵されています。

The Tokyo National Museum holds valuable works that remain among the exhibited works.

香山は生涯「美術としてのやきものづくり」「日本固有の美の保存」を追求し続けたと言われています。

It is said that Kozan continued to pursue “manufacturing pottery as art” and “preservation of beauty peculiar to Japan” throughout his life.

2016年のサントリー美術館の香山の展覧会では、何度も何度も割って試行錯誤の末にやっとできた作品だという作業記録が展示されていました。

At the 2016 Suntory Museum of Art’s Kayama exhibition, a work record was exhibited that the work was finally made after trial and error by breaking it over and over again.

当時、私は蒔絵の作品制作がうまく行っていなかった時に見た展覧会だったので香山の苦心ながらも常に前を向く制作にかける熱量を感じとても励まされました。

At that time, it was an exhibition that I saw when the production of lacquer work was not going well, so I was very encouraged by the enthusiasm of Kozan’s painstaking but always forward-looking production.

海外で高く評価された香山の作品たちの多くは海外にあるそうです。

現在日本にあるものは(東京国立博物館や国立近代美術館所蔵など)ほんの一部に過ぎないとされています。

Many of Kozan’s works, which have been highly evaluated overseas, are said to be overseas.

It is said that only a small part of what is currently in Japan (such as the collection of the Tokyo National Museum and the National Museum of Modern Art).

明治工芸の展覧会などには必ずと言っていいほど登場していますので、宮川香山の人生をかけた作品の数々を目にする機会がありましたらぜひご覧になって見てください。

It almost always appears in exhibitions of Meiji crafts, so if you have a chance to see many of Makuzu Kozan’s works, please take a look.

今回の投稿の写真は全て宮川香山の写真撮影可能作品です。

All the photos posted this time are works that could be photographed.

参考文献 References

  • 別冊太陽 日本のこころ217『明治の細密工芸 驚異の超絶技巧!』.平凡社,2014
  • サントリー美術館図録『没後100年 宮川香山』,2016

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