二刀流 木漆工芸家『黒田辰秋』Dual wield wood lacquer crafts-artist “Tatsuaki Kuroda”

今回は、前回の投稿にも少し登場した、木工芸の人間国宝『黒田辰秋』についてまとめていきたいと思います。人間国宝の認定は「木工芸」ですが、漆芸も自身で手がけて作品作りをされた方です。

This time, I would like to summarize the living national treasure “Tatsuaki Kuroda”, which appeared in the previous post. The certification of Living National Treasure is “wood craft”, but he is also a person who made works by himself in lacquering.

「黒田辰秋」の人生 Life of “Tatsuaki Kuroda”

京都生まれの黒田辰秋ですが、父親が加賀藩の支藩である大聖寺藩士(=武士)の出身です。幼い頃に山中町の黒田家に養子に出され、そこで山中塗の技術を学び、のちに京都に移住し塗師屋を営んでいたそうです。

Tatsuaki Kuroda was born in Kyoto, but his father is from the Daishoji clan (samurai), a branch domain of the Kaga clan. He was adopted by the Kuroda family in Yamanaka-cho when he was young, where he learned the technique of Yamanaka-nuri and later moved to Kyoto to run a lacquer shop.

つまり、黒田辰秋は漆に幼い頃から関わりがある塗師屋の子でした。そして山中の轆轤挽きの技術の血を受け継いでいたのかもしれません。

In other words, Tatsuaki Kuroda was a child of a lacquer shop who has been involved with lacquer since he was a child. And he may have inherited the blood of Yamanaka’s potter’s wheel grinding technique.

山中塗・山中漆器
→現在の石川県加賀市の山中温泉地区で作られる漆器が地名をとって山中塗・山中漆器と言われています。

Yamanaka-nuri / Yamanaka lacquerware
→ The lacquer ware made in the Yamanaka Onsen district of Kaga City, Ishikawa Prefecture, is called Yamanaka-nuri / Yamanaka lacquer ware after the place name.

歴史も古く、安土桃山時代に、轆轤の技術を持つ木地師が良質な木地を求めて移住してきたことから始まったと言われています。当初は温泉地ということもあり、お土産物としての需要で生産量も少なかったそうです。江戸時代になると京都より蒔絵師がきて技術を得て、漆塗り・加飾技術も発展していきました。

It has a long history, and it is said that it began when a woodworker with a potter's wheel moved in search of good quality wood during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Initially, it was a hot spring resort, so it was said that the production volume was small due to the demand as a souvenir. In the Edo period, a lacquer artist came from Kyoto to acquire the technique, and the lacquer painting and decoration technique also developed.

現在でも、全国一の木地轆轤挽き産地とされています。
石川県は、伝統工芸の産地としても有名です。
その県内で「塗りの輪島」「蒔絵の金沢」「木地の山中」という漆器の3大産地があります。

Even today, it is considered to be the number one woody potter's wheel producing area in Japan.
Ishikawa Prefecture is also famous for producing traditional crafts.
There are three major lacquer ware producing areas in the prefecture: "Nuri no Wajima," "Maki-e Kanazawa," and "Kiji no Yamanaka."
年 Year歳 Age出来事 Event
1904京都市祇園生まれ Born in Gion, Kyoto
191915父兄の勧めで蒔絵師・瀬川嘯流の住込弟子になる
→体調を崩し、約2ヶ月で帰宅
以後、独学の道を進む

Became a live-in disciple of the Makie artist Shoryu Segawa at the recommendation of his parents
→ He got sick and came home in about 2 months
After that, he goes on the path of self-education

黒田辰秋は、小学校の頃から図工や工作が好きで、将来は画家になりたかったそうです。しかし幼い頃からずっと病気がちだったそうです。

Tatsuaki Kuroda has been fond of drawing and crafting since he was in elementary school, and he wanted to be a painter in the future. However, he has been ill since he was a child.

それゆえに蒔絵師に弟子入りするも、短期間で帰宅したそうです。そしてこの頃、漆芸業界が素地・下地・塗り・加飾と分業制でした。このことに彼は疑問を抱き、素地作りから塗り・加飾と完成までの一貫制作を志し、独学で制作を続けていったそうです。

Therefore, he became a disciple of Maki-e, but he returned home in a short period of time. Around this time, the lacquering industry was a division of labor with groundwork, groundwork, painting, and decoration. He was skeptical about this, and he continued to self-taught, aiming for integrated production from base making to painting, decoration and completion.

192319京都市主催展覧会出品 京都市買い上げ
Exhibited at an exhibition sponsored by Kyoto City and purchased by Kyoto City
192420河井寛次郎、柳宗悦、青田五郎と交流
Friendship with Kanjiro Kawai, Muneyoshi Yanagi, Goro Aota
192622民藝運動の始まり
「日本民藝美術館設立趣意書」表紙表題を彫る
The beginning of the Mingei movement
Carve the cover title of “Japan Mingei Art Museum Establishment Prospectus”
192723京都・上賀茂にて、青田五良(染織)、鈴木実(助手)と自給自足の共同生活開始
ゴッホの絵画に出てくる素朴な椅子に憧れ、試作
Started self-sufficient communal living with Goro Aota (dyeing and weaving) and Minoru Suzuki (assistant) in Kamigamo, Kyoto
He longed for the simple chair that appears in Van Gogh’s paintings and made a prototype.
192925「民藝新春座談会」(大阪)に参加
「民藝教團作品第一回展覧会」開催
→目録の表紙表題を彫る
Participated in “Mingei New Year Roundtable” (Osaka)
“Mingei Religious Works 1st Exhibition” Held
→ Carve the cover title of the catalog

体調を崩し、共同生活解散、静養。
He got sick, disbanded his communal life, and rested.
「民藝」とは。。。
名も無き職人から生み出された日常生活で使う美しい道具のことを指します。
1926年、河井寛次郎、柳宗悦、浜田庄司たちにより名付けられた言葉です。

What is "Mingei"? .. ..
It is a beautiful tool created by an unnamed craftsman and used in daily life.
It is a word named by Kanjiro Kawai, Muneyoshi Yanagi, Shoji Hamada and others in 1926.

当時の工芸界は、華美な装飾を施したものが主流で、使うというよりもほとんど観賞用でした。
しかし、華美な装飾ではないものにも美術品には負けない美しさがあり、
生活の中にこそ美があると考えました。
日本全国各地の風土から生まれたものの中には、
その地の生活に寄り添った「健全な美」があるという、
当時としては「新しい美の価値観」を提示しました。

In the craft world at that time, the ones with ornate decoration were the mainstream, and they were mostly ornamental rather than used.
However, even if it is not a gorgeous decoration, it has a beauty comparable to that of a work of art, and they thought that there was beauty in their lives.
The idea that some of the things born from the climate of all over Japan have "healthy beauty" that is close to the life of the area.
They presented "new values of beauty" at that time.

当時の日本では、西洋化や技術革新が進み大量生産の波が来ていました。
物が豊富になることにより、手仕事のモノづくりの価値が揺らいでいた背景もありました。
In Japan at that time, the wave of mass production was coming due to the progress of westernization and technological innovation.
There was also a background that the value of handicraft manufacturing was shaken by the abundance of things.

20代前半に民藝運動に多大に影響を受け、独学の道で理想に燃え制作していたことが今でも語り継がれています。また、河井寛次郎との出会いは黒田辰秋の人生に大きな影響を与えたことは有名です。河井寛次郎は、民藝運動を共にした共同生活が解散した後も、黒田辰秋を支え続けた人物です。

He was greatly influenced by the Mingei movement in his early twenties, and it is still handed down that he pursued his ideals on his own path and produced them. It is also famous that the encounter with Kanjiro Kawai had a great influence on the life of Tatsuaki Kuroda. Kanjiro Kawai is a person who continued to support Tatsuaki Kuroda even after the communal life with the Mingei movement was disbanded.

京都にある河井寛次郎記念館では黒田辰秋の貴重な初期作品が所蔵されています。

The Kawai Kanjiro Memorial Hall in Kyoto holds valuable early works by Tatsuaki Kuroda.

193026京都・ベーカリーショップ「進々堂」店舗内テーブル椅子一式制作
Kyoto bakery shop “Shinshindo” in-store table chair set production
193127京都・老舗菓子店舗「鍵善良房」大飾り棚、店内装飾制作
以後、くずきり用器等も手がける
Kyoto’s long-established confectionery store “Kagizen Ryobo” large display shelf, interior decoration production
Since then, he has also produced containers for Kuzukiri.
193329河井寛次郎の勧めで、北海道工業試験場にて木工品指導
父 死去
At the recommendation of Kawai Kanjiro, woodworking instruction at the Hokkaido Industrial Research Institute
His father died
193430結婚/同年長男誕生
Marriage/The same year’s eldest son was born

コロナの影響もあり行けなかったのですが、京都の老舗菓子店舗「鍵善良房」が手がけた美術館「ZENBI-鍵善良房-KAGIZEN ART MUSEUM」 が2021年に開館しています。黒田辰秋作品が見れる場所ですので、ご興味があって京都に行かれる際には行ってみてください。

I couldn’t go because of the influence of Corona, but the museum “ZENBI-KAGIZEN ART MUSEUM”, which was created by the long-established confectionery store “Kagizen Ryobo” in Kyoto, opened in 2021. It is a place where you can see Tatsuaki Kuroda’s works, so if you are interested and have the opportunity to go to Kyoto, please go there.

193531初個展 (中村屋・大阪心斎橋)開催
この頃〜メキシコ産アワビ貝を本格的に着手
First solo exhibition (Nakamuraya, Osaka Shinsaibashi) held
Around this time, he started using Mexican abalone shells in earnest.
193733「黒田辰秋(工芸)・清水公子(洋画)合同展」(神戸画廊)開催
“Tatsuaki Kuroda (Crafts) / Kimiko Shimizu (Western Paintings) Joint Exhibition” (Kobe Gallery)
193935「黒田辰秋木漆工藝品個人展」(東京・たくみ工藝店)開催
“Tatsuaki Kuroda Akiki Lacquer Crafts Individual Exhibition” (Tokyo Takumi Crafts Shop) held
194137乾性黄疸(ワイル氏病)にかかる
Suffering from dry jaundice (Wile’s disease)
194238家具制作発注を受ける
Received an order for furniture production
194339京都府展審査員を務める
陶芸家・石黒宗麿の紹介により、富山にて制作活動
Serves as a judge for the Kyoto Prefectural Exhibition
Introduced by ceramic artist Munemaro Ishiguro, production activities in Toyama
194440朝鮮を経由して、満州へ
現在のソウルにある李王家博物館見学
To Manchuria via Korea
Visited the Lee Royal Museum in present-day Seoul
194541番浦省吾、竹中微風らと若い漆芸家を集めて、漆芸研究開始
Started lacquering research by gathering young lacquering artists such as Shogo Banura and Bifu Takenaka.
194642次男誕生 Birth of the second son

戦争の厳しい時代に、病気にかかったり厳しい生活を送りながらも拭き漆や、朱漆、螺鈿の作品など華やかなものが増えていったそうです。

During the harsh times of the war, the number of gorgeous works such as wiping lacquer, vermilion lacquer, and Raden increased while suffering from illness and living a harsh life.

194743「黒田辰秋漆芸展」(京都・朝日画廊)開催
“Tatsuaki Kuroda Lacquering Exhibition” (Kyoto Asahi Gallery) held
195147日本工芸会近畿支部創設に尽力
Contributed to the establishment of the Kinki Branch of the Japan Kogei Association
195652日本工芸会正会員となる
Become a regular member of the Japan Kogei Association
195753「沖縄伝統工芸視察団」に参加
皇居仮御殿の装飾用置物に採用
Participated in “Okinawa Traditional Crafts Inspection Team”
Adopted as a decorative figurine of the Imperial Palace temporary palace
195854日本伝統工芸展監査委員、木工部会長となる
宮内庁の備品制作
Became an audit committee member of the Japan Traditional Kogei Exhibition and chairman of the Woodworking Department
Equipment production by the Imperial Household Agency
195955東宮御所備品制作 Production of equipment for the Imperial Palace
196258第9回日本伝統工芸展出品
Exhibited at the 9th Japanese Traditional Kogei Exhibition
196460映画監督・黒澤明より家具セット制作依頼受け、制作
Received a furniture set production request from movie director Akira Kurosawa and produced

戦争が終わってからは、より勢力的に作品制作に取り組んだとされています。その作品と黒田辰秋の人柄に惚れ込んだ著名人が愛用し、交流があったとされています。

After the end of the war, it is said that he worked more vigorously on his works. It is said that a celebrity who fell in love with the work and Tatsuaki Kuroda’s personality loved the work and had an exchange.

196561十二指腸ポリープのため、入院・手術
Hospitalization and surgery due to duodenal polyp
196662宮内庁より新宮殿用の入り口扉 制作依頼受ける
Received a request from the Imperial Household Agency to produce an entrance door for the new palace
196763→依頼された扉 完成 → The requested door is completed

欧州数カ国美術館・博物館視察
新宮殿の椅子の試作繰り返す
Visited museums in several European countries
Prototype of new palace chair repeated
196864新宮殿 椅子30脚・卓子10脚・花台2脚 完成
Completed 30 new palace chairs, 10 tables, and 2 flower stands
196965重要無形文化財保持者(木工芸)に指定される
「黒田辰秋木漆芸展」(東京・日本橋三越)開催
Designated as an important intangible cultural property holder (wood craft)
“Tatsuaki Kuroda Woodworking Lacquering Exhibition” (Mitsukoshi, Nihonbashi, Tokyo) held
197167紫綬褒章受章 Received the Medal with Purple Ribbon
197369屋久島にて、屋久杉を実見 See Yakusugi at Yakushima
197672「黒田辰秋 人と作品」展(大阪・阪急百貨店)開催
“Tatsuaki Kuroda and Works” Exhibition (Osaka, Hankyu Department Store)
197773「黒田辰秋展」(東京・日本橋三越)開催
“Tatsuaki Kuroda Exhibition” (Mitsukoshi, Nihonbashi, Tokyo) held
197874勲四等旭日小綬章受章 Received the Medal of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays
198277急性肺炎のため、自宅にて死去 Died at home due to acute pneumonia

年表からも病気による静養や入院・手術をしながらも、勢力的に絶えず制作活動していたことが分かります。また作品に関しても晩年は、宮内庁の仕事も多く、民間では中々美術館などでは中々見る機会がないと思います。展覧会があればぜひ見に行きたいと思っています。

From the chronological table, it can be seen that he was constantly engaged in production activities, even though he was resting due to illness, hospitalized, and undergoing surgery. Also, regarding his work, he has a lot of work at the Imperial Household Agency in his later years, and I don’t think he has a chance to see it at museums in the private sector. If there is an exhibition, I would love to go see it.

作品の中で多く用いられた漆芸技法 Lacquering technique often used in his work

  • 拭き漆 Fuki-urushi
  • 溜塗 Tame-nuri
  • 朱漆 Red (Shu) lacquer
  • 螺鈿 Raden
  • 脱乾漆 Dakkannshitsu

拭き漆 Fuki-urushi

黒田作品の中でも最も多く用いられた技法とされています。

It is said to be the most used technique among Kuroda’s works.

最低でも10回以上生漆を塗って拭いてを繰り返して制作されています。

It is produced by repeatedly applying and wiping raw lacquer at least 10 times.

黒田辰秋作品の美しい造形のものには、飾り棚や椅子などの大きい作品、溝などが多い飾り彫りのものが多いです。拭き漆の作業も大変手間のかかる注意の必要な、体力仕事であることが推測できます。

Many of the beautiful sculptures by Tatsuaki Kuroda are large works such as display shelves and chairs, and decorative carvings with many grooves. It can be inferred that the work of wiping lacquer is also a physically demanding work that requires a lot of time and effort.

私が特に気に入っていた作品は、国立近代美術館の旧工芸館にあった作品です。貴重な作品でありながら、実際に座ることができた作品でした。座ったときの周りとの調和がとれた空気感や作品が生み出す美しい造形が時を忘れさせてくれる素晴らしい作品でした。

One of my favorite works was the one in the former Crafts Museum of the National Museum of Modern Art. Although it was a valuable work, it was a work that I was able to actually sit on. It was a wonderful work that made me forget the time with the atmosphere that was in harmony with the surroundings when I sat down and the beautiful modeling created by the work.

この作品は、1949年ごろの戦後間もない時のもので、黒田辰秋は45歳の時の作品です。制作意欲旺盛で、黒田辰秋人生の中でも出会いも多く刺激も多かった時代かと思います。

This work was made around 1949, shortly after the war, and Tatsuaki Kuroda was at the age of 45. Tatsuaki Kuroda was enthusiastic about production, and I think it was an era when he had many encounters and stimuli in his life.

今では、工芸館は金沢に移転しており中々見る機会が減ってしまったことはとても残念に思っています。

It is a pity that the Kogei Museum has now moved to Kanazawa and the chances of seeing it have decreased.

溜塗 Tame-nuri

手前が溜塗(金箔+透漆)の作品 In the foreground is a work of Tame-nuri (gold leaf + transparent lacquer)
  • 下・中塗り(朱漆)+上塗り(黒っぽい透漆・黒呂色漆など)
  • 下・中塗り(朱漆)+ 金箔 +上塗り(黒っぽい透漆・黒呂色漆など)
  • Undercoat / middle coat (red lacquer) + top coat (blackish transparent lacquer, “Kuro-roiro-urushi, etc.)
  • Under / middle coat (red lacquer) + gold leaf + top coat (blackish transparent lacquer, “Kuro-roiro-urushi”, etc.)

表面の強い朱の色が、透漆の膜で静かに沈み、奥行きのある色彩が生まれています。

The strong vermilion color on the surface gently sinks with the transparent lacquer film, creating a deep color.

朱漆 Red (Shu) lacquer

黒田作品に使われている朱漆の顔料には、本朱・赤口・洗朱の3種があります。

There are three types of vermilion pigments used in Kuroda’s works: Honshu, Aka-kuchi, and Arai-shu.

本朱 Honshu最も赤みが強い朱色 The most reddish vermilion
赤口 Aka-kuchi本朱と洗朱の中間色 Intermediate color between Hon-shu and Arai-shu
洗朱 Araishuわずかに橙色を帯びている朱色 Vermilion with a slight orange tinge
「赤漆流稜文飾箱」1957 (53歳頃の作品) Ornamental box, red lacquered (Aka-urushi), ridged design 1957 (Work around 53 years old)

黒田作品の作品名には「朱漆」「赤漆」の2通りがあり、朱の色合いに応じて使い分けていたそうです。

There are two types of Kuroda’s work names, “Shu-urushi” and “red lacquer (Aka-urushi)”, and it seems that they were used properly according to the shade of vermilion.

「赤漆」”Aka-urushi”本朱、赤口のみで仕上げたもの Finished with only vermilion and red mouth
「朱漆」”Shu-urushi”それ以外 other than that

作品名に「朱漆」が入るものは、20代の頃の作品に見られます。

Those with “Shu-urushi” in the title of the work can be seen in works in their twenties.

30代以降の作品には作品名に「赤漆」作品が登場しているとされています。

It is said that “red lacquer (Aka-urushi)” works appear in the titles of works after the 30s.

螺鈿 Raden

写真3作品とも黒田辰秋作品 All three works in the photo are works by Tatsuaki Kuroda

黒田辰秋は貝の美しさに魅了されて螺鈿作品を多く残しています。海外産の貝を多く用いて作品制作をしています。当時は海外産の貝を入手するのは困難であった時代に、知人の紹介などで探して材料を入手したそうです。

Tatsuaki Kuroda is fascinated by the beauty of shellfish and has left many Raden works. He uses a lot of shellfish from overseas to create his work. At that time, it was difficult to obtain shellfish from overseas, so he searched for them through the introduction of acquaintances and obtained the materials.

作品名の中に「耀貝(ようがい)」とあるものはメキシコ産鮑貝を指します。この「耀貝」という名称は、黒田辰秋と親交があった板画家の棟方志功が、この貝の美しさを称えて名付けたそうです。

In the title of the work, “Yo-gai” refers to Mexican abalone. The name “Yagai” is said to have been named in honor of the beauty of this shell by Shiko Munakata, a woodblock printmaker who had a close relationship with Tatsuaki Kuroda.

黒田辰秋作品の螺鈿作品では、「螺鈿白蝶縞中次」(写真真ん中)が個人的に好きで、何回も見に行ってはこの作品の写真ばかり撮っていました。この作品は、人間国宝になってからの晩年の作品とされています。特に黒田辰秋は、蝶貝の中でもオーストラリア産のものを好み、「貝の中の女王様だ」と讃えたそうです。

In Raden’s work by Tatsuaki Kuroda, I personally like “Raden white butterfly shell striped tea utensils” (middle of the photo), so I went to see it many times and took only pictures of this work. This work is said to be a work of later years after becoming a Living National Treasure. In particular, Tatsuaki Kuroda liked Australian butterflies and praised him as “the queen in the shell.”

脱乾漆 Dakkanshitsu

乾漆は、麻布を何回か貼り重ねて、様々な形を自在に作る漆芸技法のことを言います。日本では平安時代以前に仏像制作においてよく用いられた技法です。

Dry lacquer is a lacquer technique that allows you to freely create various shapes by laminating linen cloth several times. In Japan, it is a technique often used in Buddhist statue production before the Heian period.

現在では、芯となる部分の素材は様々ですが、黒田辰秋作品では粘土を用いているそうです。麻布を何回か貼り重ね、形が整えられたら、最後に水につけて粘土を溶かし、中を空洞にして漆器の形が完成します。

Currently, there are various materials for the core part, but it seems that clay is used in Tatsuaki Kuroda’s work. After laminating linen cloth several times and shaping it, soak it in water to dissolve the clay and make the inside hollow to complete the shape of the lacquer ware.

中を最後に抜くものを「脱乾漆」、抜かずにそのままのものを「乾漆」と言います。

The one that is pulled out last is called “Dakkanshitsu”, and the one that is not pulled out is called “Kanshitsu”.

黒田辰秋作品の著名なコレクターたち Famous collectors of Tatsuaki Kuroda’s work

黒田辰秋の依頼主は、現在でも著名な方が多いです。知っている方がいらっしゃいましたら、黒田辰秋作品にも興味を持っていただくきっかけになりましたら幸いです。

Many of Tatsuaki Kuroda’s clients are still well-known. If anyone knows about it, I hope it will give you an opportunity to become interested in Tatsuaki Kuroda’s work.

  • 河井寛次郎(陶芸家)
  • 柳宗悦(民藝運動を起こした思想家、宗教哲学者)
  • 志賀直哉(小説家)
  • 白州正子(随筆家)
  • 武者小路実篤(小説家・詩人・劇作家・画家)
  • 川端康成(小説家・文芸評論家)
  • 黒澤明(映画監督)
  • Kanjiro Kawai (ceramic artist)
  • Muneyoshi Yanagi (thinker and religious philosopher who started the Mingei movement)
  • Naoya Shiga (novelist)
  • Masako Shirasu (essayist)
  • Saneatsu Mushanokoji (novelist, poet, playwright, painter)
  • Yasunari Kawabata (novelist and literary critic)
  • Akira Kurosawa (Film director)

他にもいらっしゃいますが、一般的にもよく知られているのではないかという方々を挙げてみました。

There are others, but I have listed people who may be well known in general.

黒田辰秋の印象的な名言 Impressive words of Tatsuaki Kuroda

黒田辰秋の参考文献からは、彼からの印象に残った言葉が語り継がれています。

Tatsuaki Kuroda’s bibliography conveys the memorable words he said.

そこでここでは個人的にも特に印象に残った名言を引用してご紹介したいと思います。

Therefore, I would like to quote and introduce the words that left a strong impression on me personally.

最も美しい線は、削り進んでゆく間に一度しか訪れない

The most beautiful lines come only once as you carve

青木正弘監修『黒田辰秋の世界 目利きと匠の邂逅』世界文化社 p.13 Supervised by Masahiro Aoki, “Tatsuaki Kuroda’s World Connoisseurs and Takumi Encounter” Sekai Bunka p.13

木工芸に関しては門外漢なので、その感覚的なものはわかりません。しかし、この言葉から美しい線に対する自分の内なる確かな美学があり、緊張感と真剣さが感じられる名言かと思います。作品を見るときもこれが削り進んだ先にあった美しい線なのかと感慨深く見るようになりました。

As for wood crafts, I’m an outsider, so I don’t know what it feels like. However, from this word, he has his own inner and certain aesthetics for beautiful lines, and I think it is a word that feels tension and seriousness. When he saw the work, he was deeply moved to see if this was a beautiful line that had been carved.

これから素晴らしい黒田辰秋作品をこちらでもご紹介できればと思います。

I would like to introduce the wonderful works of Tatsuaki Kuroda here as well.

※今回の黒田辰秋作品の写真は、東京国立近代美術館旧工芸館の過去の展覧会での撮影可能作品のものです。

The photographs of Tatsuaki Kuroda’s work this time are those that can be taken at past exhibitions at the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo.

参考文献 References

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