東京美術学校(監造)「綵観」Small Folding Screen,Saikan 1905

先日、東京藝術大学美術館にて見てきた素晴らしい作品についてご紹介、まとめてみたいと思います。ありがたいことにコレクション展だったので撮影可能でした。

I would like to introduce and summarize the wonderful works I saw at the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum the other day. Thankfully, it was a collection exhibition, so I was able to shoot.

この日、藝大美術館には、この作品「綵観」がお目当てで見に行きました。高さ33.3cmと決して大きい作品ではない小さな屏風です。

On this day, I went to the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum to see this work, “Saikan”. It is a small folding screen with a height of 33.3 cm, which is by no means a large work.

明治工芸の展覧会で何回か見ている作品ですが、何度見ても感嘆している作品です。この屏風だけで何時間でも見れそうなくらいです。

It’s a work I’ve seen several times at the Meiji Crafts exhibition, but I’m impressed with it no matter how many times I see it. I can see it for hours with this folding screen alone.

作品についての背景を追っていきたいと思います。

I would like to follow the background of the work.

東京美術学校 Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts

今回ご紹介する作品は、東京美術学校の監修で作られたものとされています。

The work introduced this time is said to have been made under the supervision of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

「東京美術学校」とは、明治時代・1886年に日本で初めて創設された国立の美術学校です。開校当初は伝統的な日本美術を継承・保護する目的とされていました。

“Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts” is the first national art school founded in Japan in 1886 during the Meiji era. When the school opened, it was intended to inherit and protect traditional Japanese art.

開校時の学科は日本画・木彫・彫金・漆工の4学科です。

At the time of opening, there are four departments: Japanese painting, wood carving, metal engraving, and lacquering (Urushi).

漆工科は開校当初からあったということが、日本の国としての漆工の重要な立ち位置が伺えます。漆は日本国にとって大切な分野の一つであったと言えます。

The fact that the lacquering “Urushi” department has existed since the school opened suggests the important position of lacquering as a country in Japan. It can be said that Urushi was one of the important fields for Japan.

その後、西洋画・図案科と増え、西洋美術教育も加えられています。数年単位で学科の再編成や増加を経ていました。そして第二次世界大戦後、現在の東京藝術大学に包括されました。

Since then, the number of Western painting and design departments has increased, and Western art education has also been added. The departments were reorganized and increased every few years. After World War II, it was included in the current Tokyo University of the Arts

現在の東京藝術大学の美術学部の前身とされる学校です。現在、東京・上野にある東京藝術大学のキャンパスのほとんどが、昔の東京美術学校の敷地とされています。現在の音楽学部の敷地も東京美術学校の敷地だったようです。

It is the predecessor of the current Faculty of Fine Arts at Tokyo University of the Arts. Currently, most of the campus of Tokyo University of the Arts in Ueno, Tokyo is considered to be the site of the old Tokyo Fine Arts School. It seems that the land of the current Faculty of Music was also the land of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts

東京美術学校は多くの帝室技芸員となる優秀な人物を多く輩出しています。

Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts has produced many excellent people who will be many imperial artists.

1929年から既に東京美術学校での収蔵品を展示するための「陳列館」が作られ、1970年からは一般の人でも展示が見られるようになりました。その後、1999年から東京藝術大学美術館が新設されました。

From 1929, the “Exhibition Hall” was already built to display the collections of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, and from 1970, the exhibition can be seen by the general public. After that, the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum was newly established in 1999.

現在でも、東京藝術大学美術館では東京美術学校時代に作られた貴重な作品を保管しています。美術展覧会で貸し出されていたり、美術館でも展覧会の展示で見ることができます。

Even today, the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum holds valuable works made during the Tokyo Fine Arts School. It is rented out at art exhibitions and can be seen at exhibitions at museums.

考案者「島田佳矣」Inventor “Yoshinari Shimada”

この作品「綵観」の考案者、いわゆるプロデューサーのような役割を果たしたとされるのが「島田佳矣」とされています。

It is said that “Yoshinari Shimada” played the role of the inventor of this work, “Saikan,” the so-called producer.

彼は、石川県金沢市の出身で金沢の地で15歳から日本画を学んでいました。

Originally from Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture, he has been studying Japanese painting since he was 15 years old in Kanazawa.

その後、1889年東京美術学校の開校1期生として日本画科に入学しました。同期生には横山大観、下村観山などがいます。

After that, in 1889, I entered the Japanese painting department as a first-year student at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. His fellow students include Taikan Yokoyama and Kanzan Shimomura.

1894年に卒業後、当時学長であった正木直彦から推薦され、母校の図案科の教授に就任しました。

After graduating in 1894, he was recommended by Naohiko Masaki, who was the principal of the school at the time, and became a professor in the design department of his alma mater.

それにより様々な東京美術学校への依頼品制作に従事していました。

As a result, he was engaged in the production of commissioned products to various Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

当時は工芸分野の産業化に重きをおいていた時代なので、各分野でより深く専門性を高め、それを集合体化することで最高の作品を作り上げていたと考えられます。工芸分野での融合は、東京美術学校だからこそ為し得た仕事であったことも伺えます。

At that time, the emphasis was on the industrialization of the craft field, so it is thought that the best works were created by deepening the specialization in each field and aggregating them. It can be said that the fusion in the craft field was a work that could only be done by the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

また皇室による美術の奨励・制作依頼が工芸技術の発展に大きく影響しました。

In addition, the imperial family’s request for encouragement and production of art had a great influence on the development of craft technology.

しかし、元来質素を旨とする皇室なので、大震災など国全体が大変な時はもちろん豪華な工芸品の献上も控えられました。完成はしたものの、世に知られていない作品もあったようです。

However, since the imperial family originally values spartanness, it was refrained from giving luxurious crafts as well as when the whole country was in trouble such as the great earthquake. Although it was completed, it seems that there were some works that were unknown to the world.

「綵観」とは。。。What is “Saikan”? .. ..

この作品の題目である「綵観」(さいかん)の意味は調べてみましたが、明確に示している資料がありませんでした。「綵観」の「綵」は「美しい彩り」を意味するので、「彩りを観る」という意味なのかもしれません。

I tried to find out the meaning of the title of this work, “Saikan,” but I couldn’t find any material that clearly showed it. Since “綵” in “綵観” means “beautiful color”, it may mean “seeing color”.

また「綵観」=「綵閣」=「仙人の居」とする意味もあるようです。仙人の住むところとなると、俗世を離れた理想郷のようなところを指すのかもしれません。

In addition, it seems that there is also a meaning that “綵観” = “綵閣” = “the residence of the hermit”. When it comes to the place where hermits live, it may refer to a place like an utopia away from the world.

何れにしても「美しい絵画の集まり」を示してるようです。

In any case, it seems to indicate a “collection of beautiful paintings”.

この「綵観」の1年前に日銀に依頼され、同じような小さな屏風「精華」という作品も存在するようです。この作品は当時の美術商・登山長藏の依頼により制作されたそうです。

It seems that there is a similar small folding screen called “Seika”, which was commissioned by the Bank of Japan one year before this “Saikan”. It seems that this work was produced at the request of the art dealer, Chozo Toyama at that time.

帝室技芸員 Imperial Household Artist

今回の作品では、各分野の帝室技芸員、帝室技芸員の候補に値する者がそれぞれの得意分野で作品を作り上げているそうです。屏風は木製の額状になっていて、贅沢に両面全部に絵が施されています。

In this work, it seems that imperial artists in each field and those who deserve candidates for imperial artists are creating works in their respective fields of specialty. The folding screen has a wooden frame and is luxuriously painted on both sides.

帝室技芸員は今でいう人間国宝です。

The Imperial Household Artist is what we now call a Living National Treasure.

作品の撮影ができたので順番に見ていきたいと思います。蒔絵のものは最後にまとめます。

Now that I’ve shot the work, I’d like to take a look at it in order. The lacquer work is summarized at the end.

橋本雅邦 Gaho Hashimoto (1835-1908)

右側:日本画の橋本雅邦「應眞(羅漢の画)」

Right: Japanese painting Gaho Hashimoto “Oshin (Rakan’s painting)”

橋本雅邦は狩野派の絵師・帝室技芸員です。東京美術学校の発足にも携わり、帝室技芸員制度ができた時に第一に選ばれた人物です。題目の「應眞(おうしん)」とは「悟りを開いた聖者、僧侶」のことを指し、羅漢の別称とされています。

Gaho Hashimoto is a Kano school painter and imperial artist. He was also involved in the establishment of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts and was the first person to be selected when the Imperial Household Artist system was established. The title “Oshin” refers to “enlightened saints and monks,” and is another name for the Arhat.

羅漢(僧侶)は、橋本雅邦がよく描いている画題です。山の中での修行の様子が描かれていますが、人物の袈裟や表情、山の岩や波など小さな画面にとても繊細で細かく描かれています。

Rakan (monk) is a subject often drawn by Gahō Hashimoto. The state of training in the mountains is drawn, but it is very delicate and detailed on a small screen such as the Kasaya and facial expressions of the person, the rocks and waves of the mountain.

高村光雲 Koun Takamura (1852-1934)

左側:彫刻の高村光雲「㹻子(狆の木彫)」

Left side: Sculpture Koun Takamura “Washi (Japanese Chin wood carving)”

高村光雲は仏師・彫刻家・帝室技芸員です。仏師・高村東雲の弟子。木彫家として生活が苦しい中でも、積極的に西洋美術の写実表現も学び、近代の彫刻技術に取り入れたとされています。

Koun Takamura is a Buddhist sculptor, sculptor, and imperial artist. He is a disciple of the Buddhist sculptor, Toun Takamura. It is said that he actively studied the realistic expression of Western art and incorporated it into modern sculpture techniques, even though his life as a wood carver was difficult.

西郷隆盛像 Saigo Takamori Statue

東京美術学校では教授としてご活躍されていました。現代にもよく目にする作品だと上野公園の西郷隆盛像が有名かと思います。

He was active as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. I think that the statue of Takamori Saigo in Ueno Park is famous for his work that is often seen in modern times.

この作品は、日本原産種の犬種「狆(ちん)」を描いて彫刻したものです。狆は皇室から庶民まで愛された犬種で、日本では初めて室内飼育された犬種ともされています。昔の日本犬の多くが外で飼われていたので、室内で飼うというのは珍しかったのかもしれません。

This work is a sculpture depicting the dog breed “Chin” native to Japan. The Japanese Chin is a dog breed loved by the imperial family and the common people, and is said to be the first dog breed to be bred indoors in Japan. Many Japanese dogs at that time were kept outside, so it may have been rare to keep them indoors.

狆 Chin

またこの屏風にあえて室内犬の狆を描くというのも、この屏風の小ささや室内での用途への配慮も感じられます。(あくまでも推測です)

Also, the fact that he dares to draw the Japanese Chin of an indoor dog in this folding screen also shows his consideration for the small size of this folding screen and its indoor use. (It’s just a guess)

川端玉章Gyokusho Kawabata (1842-1913)

右側:日本画の川端玉章「寒景(雪景山水の画)」

Right: Japanese painting Gyokusho Kawabata “Cold scenery (snow scene Sansui painting)”

川端玉章は、円山派の日本画家・帝室技芸員です。東京美術学校の教授を務めていました。前述の橋本雅邦とは同僚だったとそうです。

Gyokusho Kawabata is a Japanese painter and imperial artist of the Maruyama school. He was a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. He is said to have been a colleague with Gaho Hashimoto mentioned above.

中国の絵画様式を元にしている狩野派と写生を重視する円山派と2つの流派が同じ屏風にまとまって見ることができるのはとても面白いと思います。

I think it is very interesting to see the Kano school, which is based on Chinese painting style, the Maruyama school, which emphasizes sketching, and the two schools in the same folding screen.

安藤重兵衛 Jyube Ando (1856-1945)

左側上:七宝の安藤重兵衛「芳宜(はぎ)」(萩の七宝)

Above left: Cloisonne Ando Jyube “Hagi” (Hagi’s Cloisonne)

安藤重兵衛は、名古屋出身の七宝作家です。帝室技芸員ではありませんが、万国博覧会で数多く出品と受賞を重ねたとされています。

Jyubei Ando is a cloisonne craftsman from Nagoya. Although he is not an imperial artist, he is said to have exhibited and won numerous awards at the World’s Fair.

「J.ANDO」の名で日本の七宝を広めたして、その功績は高く評価されています。皇室御用達の受注制作も多く手掛けており、東京美術学校とのつながりもあったことが伺えます。

He spread the Japanese Cloisonne under the name of “J.ANDO” and his achievements are highly evaluated. He is also involved in many made-to-order productions for the Imperial family, and it can be said that he had a connection with the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

帝室技芸員に値する人物として制作依頼されたと考えられます。

It is believed that he was commissioned to produce as a person worthy of an imperial artist.

萩の小さな花びら、葉っぱ一つ一つまで精巧に作られた有線七宝です。よく見ると遠くに見える部分は無線七宝で、手前に見える葉っぱは線が太いように見えます。遠近で線の太さも変えているのかもしれません。

It is a wired cloisonne that is elaborately made up to the small petals of Hagi and each leaf. If you look closely, the part that you can see in the distance is the wireless cloisonne, and the leaves that you can see in the foreground look like thick lines. This work may have been intentionally changed by the author in perspective and the thickness of the line.

見逃してしまいそうな小さな画面に匠の技が凝縮されています。

In this work, the craftsmanship is condensed on a small screen that you might miss.

海野勝岷 Unno Shomin (1844-1915)

右側下:彫金の海野勝岷「朱鳥(鶉の銀片切彫)」

Bottom right: Engraving Shomin Unno “Shucho (silver piece carving of quail)”

海野勝岷は、彫金家・帝室技芸員です。万博への出品作品も多数あり、東京美術学校でも教授を勤めていました。

Shomin Unno is a goldsmith and imperial artist. He has exhibited many works at the Expo, and he was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

鋭角な刃先を持つ小刀状の鏨(タガネ)を使って、斜めの線を彫る片切彫り(かたぎりぼり)を得意としたそうです。

He is good at carving diagonal lines using a knife-shaped chisel with an acute-angled cutting edge “Katagiribori”.

この作品も片切彫りの作品です。

This work is also a “Katagiribori” carving work.

鶉の羽根が彫りの太さを絶妙に変化させて表現されています。下の草の部分は勢いよく掘られていたり、速さと迷いのない巧みな線彫りです。

The feathers of the quail are expressed by exquisitely changing the thickness of the carving. The part of the grass below is dug vigorously, and it is a skillful line carving without hesitation and speed.

荒木寛畝 Kanpo Araki (1831-1915)

左側:日本画の荒木寛畝「錦輪(孔雀の画)」

Left: Japanese painting Kanpo Araki “Nishikiwa (Peacock painting)”

荒木寛畝は、日本画家・帝室技芸員です。中国の南画、狩野派、西洋画など様々な要素を学んだ谷文晁系の絵師・荒木寛快の弟子であり養子であったとされています。洋画を学び、洋画家として絵を描いていた時期もありましたが、日本画家として復帰しています。その復帰後、東京美術学校で橋本雅邦の後任として教授を務めていました。

Araki Kanpo is a Japanese painter and imperial artist. He was a disciple and adopted child of Tani Buncho’s painter, Kankai Araki, who learned various elements such as Chinese Nanga, Kano school, and Western painting. He studied Western painting and had a time when he was painting as a Western painter, but he has returned as a Japanese painter. After returning to work as a Japanese painter, he was a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, replacing Masakuni Hashimoto.

彼は、緻密な描写の花鳥画を得意としていました。特に孔雀の絵は幾度も描いており、万博などへの出品受賞も多く、度重なる卓越した描き込みの技が伺えます。晩年になっても絵を描き続け、優秀な弟子も多く輩出しています。

He was good at bird-and-flower paintings with detailed depictions. He has drawn many peacock paintings, and has received many awards at Expo, etc., showing his repeated outstanding drawing skills. He continues to paint in his later years and has produced many excellent disciples.

宮川香山 Kozan Miyagawa

右側上:陶芸の宮川香山「緑扇(磁器の芭蕉)」

On the right side: Ceramic art Kozan Miyagawa “Green fan (porcelain Basho)”

宮川香山(初代)は陶芸家・帝室技芸員です。以前にこの作品の展覧会で見たときは初代の作とされていました。しかし今回は、二代目の作とされていました。どちらが正しいのかは残念ながら不明です。

Kozan Miyagawa (first generation) is a ceramist and imperial artist. When I saw it in the exhibition of this work before, it was said to be the work of the first Makuzu Kozan. However, this time, it was said to be the second generation. Unfortunately it is unclear which is correct.

初代香山は高浮彫と呼ばれる香山独自の立体的な陶芸が有名です。しかし、磁器も素晴らしく晩年には磁器の釉薬の研究に没頭したとされています。

The first Makuzu Kozan is famous for its unique three-dimensional ceramic art called high relief. However, porcelain is also wonderful, and it is said that he devoted himself to the study of porcelain glaze in his later years.

小さな画面にまるで絵画のように再現された釉薬の色がとても繊細で磁器とは思えません。こちらもさりげなくサラリと技術が凝縮された作品です。この作品は初代のものではないのかな。。。?と個人的には思いました。

The color of the glaze reproduced like a painting on a small screen is very delicate and does not seem to be porcelain. This is also a work in which the technique is condensed casually. I wonder if this work is from the first generation. .. .. ?? I personally thought.

宮川香山については過去の投稿でもご紹介していますので、ご興味のある方はぜひ合わせてご一読ください。

Makuzu Kozan has been introduced in past posts, so if you are interested, please read it as well.

山田宗美 Sobi Yamada (1871-1916)

右側下:鍛金の山田宗美「坐魚(蝦蟇の鉄打出)」

Bottom right: Forged Sobi Yamada “Zagyo”(Iron launch of the Japanese common toad)

山田宗美は、石川県出身の鍛金家で帝室技芸員に内定されていましたが、就任直前に亡くなってしまった方です。

Sobi Yamada is a forging artist from Ishikawa prefecture and has been appointed as an imperial artist. However, he died shortly before he became an imperial artist.

万博や日本美術協会展などで数多く受賞を重ねていました。鉄の一枚の板から花瓶や置物といった立体物を作り出す独自の技術を持って作品を作り出していたそうです。

He has received many awards at the Expo and the Japan Art Association exhibition. It seems that he created his works with his own technique of creating three-dimensional objects such as vases and figurines from a single iron plate.

かなりリアルなガマガエルが立体的で、画面から飛び出してきそうです。ガマガエルの皮膚の表面まで細かく再現していて、水気や艶々としたガマガエルの皮膚の色さえ感じるような作品です。

A fairly realistic toad is three-dimensional and seems to pop out of the screen. The surface of the toad’s skin is reproduced in detail, and it is a work that even feels the moisture and glossy skin color of the toad.

石川光明 Mitsuaki Ishikawa (1852-1913)

左側:彫刻の石川光明「司晨(ししん)(牝牡鶏の牙彫)」

Left side: Sculpture Mitsuaki Ishikawa “Shishin (Fang carving of hen)”

石川光明は、彫刻家・帝室技芸員です。絵画を狩野寿信、牙彫を根付師・菊川正光に学んだとされています。万博の出品、受賞歴もあり、東京美術学校でも教授を務めていました。

Mitsuaki Ishikawa is a sculptor and imperial artist. He is said to have learned painting from Toshinobu Kano and his fang carving from his netsuke master, Masamitsu Kikukawa. He has exhibited and received awards at the Expo, and he was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

この作品は、牙彫作品です。明記はありませんでしたが、動物の牙、象牙ではないかなと思います。

This work is a fang carving work. It wasn’t specified, but I think it’s animal fangs or ivory.

写真だと見にくいのですが、オスとメスの鶏が2羽、非常に細かく彫って描かれています。

It’s hard to see in the photo, but two male and female chickens are carved very finely.

佐竹永湖 Eiko Satake (1835-1909)

左側:日本画の佐竹永湖「爽氣(秋景山水の画)」

Left side: Japanese painting Eiko Satake “Soki (painting of autumn scenery Sansui)”

佐竹永湖は、日本画家で、土佐派・狩野派・谷文晁派と画法を修得したとされています。橋下雅邦と同じ年の生まれです。

Eiko Satake is a Japanese painter who is said to have mastered the Tosa school, Kano school, and Tani Buncho school. He was born in the same year as Gaho Hashimoto.

帝室技芸員には認定されていませんが、万博での受賞歴や宮内庁の御用絵師としても活躍された方です。

Although not certified as an imperial artist, he has also been active as an award-winning artist at the Expo and as a painter for the Imperial Household Agency.

この作品の発表年から70歳の時の作品とされます。小さな画面に、陰影表現など細部にわたって描き込まれています。題目の「爽氣(そうき)」通り、秋の清々しい世界観が溢れる作品です。

It is said to be the work when he was 70 years old from the year when this work was announced. The details such as shadow expression are drawn on a small screen. As the title “Soki”, it is a work full of the refreshing world view of autumn.

香川勝廣 Katsuhiro Kagawa (1853-1917)

左側上:金属工芸の香川勝廣「紫袖(藤花の象嵌)」

Above left: Katsuhiro Kagawa, a metal craft, “Purple sleeve (inlay of FuWisteria flowers)”

香川勝廣は、金工作家・帝室技芸員です。蒔絵師であり、日本画家でもあった柴田是真に絵を学んでいます。能面師の有吉吉永に木彫刻も学び、加納夏雄に彫金を学んでいます。東京美術学校の教授としても勤めていました。

Katsuhiro Kagawa is a metal craftsman and imperial artist. He is studying painting with Shibata Zeshin, a lacquer artist and Japanese painting artist. He also studied wood carving from Noh mask master Ariyoshi Yoshinaga and metal engraving from Kano Natsuo. He also worked as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

各分野で色々な人から学んだ香川勝廣独自の世界観があります。

Kagawa Katsuhiro has his own world view that he learned from various people in each field.

花鳥等のモチーフを得意としていたそうです。加納夏雄直伝の片切彫と高肉象嵌を組み合わせた立体感のある金属とは思えない表現はまさに超絶技巧です。

He was good at motifs such as flowers and birds. The expression in metal with a three-dimensional effect, which is a combination of “Katagiriboro” and “Takaniku-zogan”(inlay), which was taught directly by Kano Natsuo, is truly a transcendental technique.

この作品では藤の枝の部分が高肉象嵌で盛り上げてあります。とても写実的で同じ金属の中での色味の違いがあり、色のない金属から藤の紫の色味を感じさえします。

In this work, the branches of wisteria are raised with high inlay. It is very realistic and there is a difference in color within the same metal, and I can even feel the purple color of wisteria from a colorless metal.

加藤友太郎 Tomotaro Kato (1851-1916)

左側下:陶芸家の加藤友太郎「華麟(磁器の金魚)」

Bottom left: Ceramic artist Tomotaro Kato “Karin (porcelain goldfish)”

加藤友太郎は愛知県出身で、上京後、東京を代表する陶芸家となりました。上京後、井上良斎の元で学んだのちに、G・ワグネルの元で技術を習得しています。

Tomotaro Kato is from Aichi prefecture and became one of Tokyo’s leading potters after moving to Tokyo. After he moved to Tokyo, he studied under Ryosai Inoue and then mastered the technique under G. Wagner.

号は「陶寿」The name as a potter is “Toju”

ゴットフリード・ワグネルは、ドイツ出身で当時欧米の技術や制度などを指導するために政府によって雇用された外国人でした。彼は、G・ワグネルの元で、化学の知識を多くを学び、多くの絵付けの技を身につけたとされています。

Gottfried Wagner was a foreigner from Germany who was hired by the government to teach Western techniques and systems at the time. Under Gottfried Wagner, he learned a lot of chemistry and learned a lot of painting skills on porcelain.

帝室技芸員には認定されていませんが、作品は数多く受賞を重ねています。特に赤色顔料は、彼にしか出せない色であったとされています。金魚の淡い色合いがなんとも絶妙で動きを感じます。

Although he is not certified as an imperial artist, his work has won numerous awards. In particular, the red pigment is said to have been a color that only he could produce. The pale color of the goldfish in this work is exquisite and I can feel the movement.

竹内久一 Hisakazu Takenouchi (1857-1916)

右側:彫刻家の竹内久一「化鵬(かほう)(鯤の檜彫)」

Right: Sculptor Hisakazu Takeuchi “Kaho (Japanese cypress carving)”

竹内久一は、木彫刻家・帝室技芸員です。東京出身で、象牙彫刻家・堀内龍仙の弟子から始まり、師匠亡き後、苦しい生活の傍、木彫刻もするようになったそうです。骨董品が好きで、古美術研究、古寺調査など多く手がけていた。

Hisakazu Takeuchi is a wood sculptor and Imperial Household Artist. Originally from Tokyo, he started out as a disciple of ivory carving artist Ryusen Horiuchi, and after the death of his master, he began to carve wood while living a difficult life. He loves antiques, and he has done a lot of antique research, old temple research, and so on.

博覧会でも受賞を重ねています。東京美術学校でも教授として勤めていました。古彫刻物の修繕や調査、弟子の育成など功績が多く知られています。

He has also won awards at expositions. He also worked as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. He is known for his achievements such as repairing and investigating ancient sculptures and training disciples.

この作品では、化鵬(かほう)=鯤(こん)が鵬という想像上の大型の鳥に化けた生き物が描かれています。私も調べるまでよく分からなかったものですが、鯤(こん)というのは古代中国で伝説に登場する想像上の巨大な魚のようです。この鯤は鳥に化けるという言い伝えがあるようです。魚が鳥の羽を持って飛び立っている様子が細かく彫られています。魚だからか、ヒレのような羽根です。

In this work, Kaho = 鯤 is a creature that has been transformed into an imaginary large bird called 鵬. I didn’t know until I looked it up, but it looks like a giant imaginary fish that appears in legends in ancient China. There seems to be a legend that this 鯤 can be transformed into a bird. It is finely carved that a fish is flying with a bird’s feather. Perhaps because it is a fish, it has wings like fins.

上に乗っているのは誰なのかは不明です。風を巻き起こす風神のようにも見えます。この鵬は、中国小説などの色々な文献で登場するようです。金色の地の背景に浮き上がっているように見えます。金地も一面金ではなく暈しが入っていたり細部にわたってとても細かいです。

It is unknown who is on top. It looks like a wind god that causes the wind. This Peng seems to appear in various documents such as Chinese novels.It looks like it’s floating on a golden background. The background of gold is not all gold, but it has a gradation and is very detailed in every detail.

もう少し注釈や説明が欲しいものでしたが、残念ながら展示では作品名と実物しかなかったのであくまでも私が調べた範囲の推測です。

I wanted a little more annotation and explanation, but unfortunately there was only the title and the actual work in the exhibition, so it is just a guess of the range I investigated.

野口小蘋 Shohin Noguchi (1847-1917)

左側:日本画の野口小蘋「蔚林(うつりん)(夏景山水の画)」

Left side: Japanese painting Shohin Noguchi “Utsurin (summer scenery Sansui)”

野口小蘋は、今までご紹介した方々がみんな男性なのに対して当時としては珍しい女性の日本画家です。そして、女性初の帝室技芸員にも任命されています。

Shohin Noguchi is a female Japanese painter who is rare at the time, while all the people I have introduced so far are men. And she has also been appointed as the first female imperial artist.

徳島県の出身で幼い頃から絵の才能があると両親に見込まれ、四条派・南画・浮世絵と様々な絵に啓発を受け修業したそうです。

Originally from Tokushima prefecture, her parents expected her to have a talent for painting from an early age, and she was enlightened by various paintings such as Shijo school, Nanga, and Ukiyo-e, and trained.

博覧会での度重なる受賞や皇室の御用絵師として多くの作品を手がけています。

She has received numerous awards at expositions and has worked on many works as a painter for the imperial family.

この作品には、夏の緑が生い茂る山、水の流れなど細かく色彩豊かに描かれています。よく見ると建物や橋も陰影、松の葉や紅葉の葉1枚1枚まで細かく繊細に描かれています。

In this work, the mountains with lush summer greenery, the flow of water, etc. are depicted in detail and colorfully. If you look closely, you can see the buildings, bridges, and shadows, and the pine needles and autumn leaves are drawn in detail and delicately.

濤川惣助 Sosuke Namikawa (1847-1910)

右側上:七宝の濤川惣助「瑞雪(ずいせつ)(七宝の富士)」

Above right: Sosuke Namikawa of Cloisonne “Zuisetsu (Fuji of Cloisonne)”

濤川惣助は、七宝家・帝室技芸員です。陶磁器を扱う貿易商から、七宝に魅了され七宝作家の道に転身したそうです。

Sosuke Namikawa is a cloisonne craftsman and imperial artist. From his work as a trader dealing in ceramics, he was fascinated by Cloisonne and turned into a Cloisonne writer.

彼は、釉薬を焼き付ける前に植線を取り外す無線七宝を発明しました。卓越した技術で、それまでの有線七宝ではできなかった表現を実現しています。

He invented the non-wired Cloisonne, which removes the planting line before burning the glaze. With outstanding technology, he have realized expressions that were not possible with conventional wired cloisonne.

万博への出品、受賞に加えて、宮内庁依頼品も多く制作しています。日本を代表する素晴らしい七宝作品として、作品の多くは海外へ渡りました。現在でもオークション等で高値で取引されているかと思います。

In addition to exhibiting at the Expo and receiving awards, he also produces many items requested by the Imperial Household Agency. Many of his works have gone abroad as a wonderful cloisonne work representing Japan. I think that it is still being traded at high prices at auctions and the like.

この作品も、雪と雲が無線七宝により筆でにじませたようにさえ見えます。色使いも絶妙です。

This work even looks like snow and clouds smeared with a brush by a wireless cloisonne. The color scheme is also exquisite.

濤川惣助の素晴らしい作品の多くは海外に渡っているので、国内にはあまり残っていないとされていて、日本人はあまり知らない人も多いかもしれません。七宝の帝室技芸員は、濤川惣助ともう一人並河晴之の2人のみです。

Many of Sosuke Namikawa’s wonderful works have gone abroad, so it is said that there are not many left in Japan, and many Japanese may not know much about them. There are only two cloisonne imperial artists, Sosuke Namikawa and Haruyuki Namagawa.

大島如雲 Joun Oshima (1858-1940)

右側下:鋳金の大島如雲「凌雲(りょううん)(鋳金の登竜)」

Bottom right: Metalcasting Joun Oshima “Ryoun (Casting Dragon)”

大島如雲は、東京出身の鋳金家です。帝室技芸員ではありませんが、数多くの作品を出品し、受賞しています。東京美術学校の教授も勤められていました。

Joun Oshima is a metal casting artist from Tokyo. Although he is not an imperial artist, he has exhibited and won numerous works. He was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

「鋳金」とは、金属を溶かして型に入れて成形する金属工芸の技法です。彼はこの技術を父より受け継ぎ、とても精巧な作品を作り上げています。

“Metal casting” is a metal craft technique that melts metal and puts it in a mold to form it. He inherits this technique from his father and creates very elaborate works.

この作品も鋳金で作られたものです。題目の「凌雲」とは、雲を凌いで高く飛ぶことです。中国の歴史書には「凌雲の志」と言って、高い地位や超越した志という意味で出てくる言葉のようです。

This work is also made of metal. The title “凌雲Ryoun” is to fly higher than the clouds. In Chinese history books, “凌雲’s will” is a word used to mean high status and transcendental aspiration.

龍が雲から顔を出しているように描かれています。雲のほわっとした感じや龍のなびく感じがなんとも言えない立体感と奥行きになっています。他の鍛金の作品と違い、鋳金ならではの柔らかい感じが出ています。

The dragon is depicted as coming out of the clouds. The relaxed feeling of the clouds and the fluttering feeling of the dragon have an indescribable three-dimensional effect and depth. Unlike other forged works, it has a soft feel unique to metal casting.

私は、素人目ながら技法が違うと同じ金属でもこうも違うものなのかと見ていました。

As for metal, I was surprised to see how different the same metal would be if the technique was different, even though I was an amateur.

蒔絵 Maki-e

「蒔絵」は「蒔絵」でまとめてみたいと思います。

I would like to summarize “Maki-e” in “Maki-e”.

まず題目の字は「大槻如電」の字とされています。「大槻如電」は、明治〜昭和にかけて活躍した学者なので工芸家ではありません。如電の字を元に螺鈿の貝を切り、とても精巧に象嵌した誰かがいたのだろうと思います。貝の輝き具合から薄貝ではないのではないかと思いました。この素晴らしい螺鈿は誰の仕事なのかは記載がなかったです。

First of all, the character of the title is said to be the character written by “Joden Otsuki”. “Joden Otsuki” is not a craftsman because he is a scholar who was active from the Meiji era to the Showa era. I think there was someone who cut the Raden shell based on the character of Joden and inlaid it in a very elaborate manner. From the brilliance of the shellfish, I thought it might be a thin shellfish. There was no mention of who the work of this wonderful Raden was.

あまりにも印刷のように自然過ぎて、貝であることを忘れてしまうくらいでした。

It was so natural and beautiful as printed that I forgot that it was a shellfish.

白山松哉 Shosai Shirayama (1853-1923)

左側:蒔絵の白山松哉「錦衲(きんのう)(雁来紅の研出蒔絵)」

Left side: Shosai Shirayama of Maki-e “Kinno (“Ganraiko” Togidashi-Makie)”

白山松哉は、漆工芸家・帝室技芸員です。東京美術学校でも教授を勤めていました。

研ぎ出し蒔絵を最も得意としていたそうなので、この屏風でも研ぎ出し蒔絵の作品だったのかと思います。

Shosai Shirayama is a lacquering”Urushi” craftsman and imperial artist. He was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

He seems to have been the best at Togidashi-Makie, so I think that this folding screen was also a work of sharpening lacquer work “Togidashi-Makie”.

モチーフの「雁来紅」は「雁が来る頃に葉が赤くなる植物」からきた呼び名で、別名ハゲイトウ。

The motif of this work, “Ganraiku,” is a name derived from “a plant whose leaves turn red in the season when the geese come,” also known as Amaranthus tricolor.

私はこの植物を知らなかったので、この研ぎ出し蒔絵を見て初めて存在を知りました。熱帯アジアが原産で、日本でも江戸時代に栽培されていたそうです。

I didn’t know this plant, so I didn’t know its existence until I saw this Togidashi-Makie work. It is native to tropical Asia and was cultivated in Japan during the Edo period.

色鮮やかさと直立に伸びるハゲイトウがとても写実的に描かれています。葉っぱの葉脈、色固めの配色の細かさや金粉の蒔き具合などずっと見ていられる作品でした。

The vivid colors and the upright Hagaito are depicted very realistically. It was a work that I can see for a long time, such as the veins of the leaves, the fine color scheme of the color, and the sprinkling condition of the gold powder.

そして、本当に綺麗な鏡面で、昔のものなのにもかかわらず、たった今磨き上がったような艶々具合でした。

And it was a really beautiful mirror surface, and despite being old, it had a glossy appearance that was just polished.

白山松哉・帝室技芸員制度については過去の投稿でも取り上げていますので、ご興味ある方はぜひ一緒にご一読ください。

The Shosai Shirayama / Imperial Household Artist system has been covered in past posts, so if you are interested, please read it together.

川之邊一朝 Iccho Kawanobe (1830-1910)

右側:蒔絵の川之邊一朝「双雄(そうゆう)(温め鳥の高蒔絵)」

Right: Iccho Kawanobe of Maki-e “Soyu (Taka-Makie work of Nukume-dori)”

川之邊一朝は、漆芸家・帝室技芸員です。江戸幕府での御用蒔絵師でもありました。明治維新後は、万博にも積極的に出品し、高い評価を受けていました。東京美術学校の教授も勤めています。

Iccho Kawanobe is a lacquer artist and imperial artist. He was also a lacquer artist in the Edo Shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration, he actively exhibited at the Expo and received high praise. He is also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

この作品は、研出蒔絵+高蒔絵の作品です。背景が研ぎ出し蒔絵なのですが、全面に、金粉・青金粉・銀粉とところどころボカして一面に蒔かれていて、面一に綺麗に研ぎ出されて鏡面のようになっています。

This work is a work of Togidashi-Makie + Taka-Makie. The background is a Togidashi-Makie work, but the entire surface is sprinkled with gold powder, blue gold powder, and silver powder in places, and it is sharpened cleanly to make it look like a mirror surface.

松の木の木の枝のゴツゴツした感じや直線的な松の葉を一本一本丁寧に綺麗に描かれています。鷹もとても綺麗に描割してあります。下に飛び立った小さな雀も小さいけれど羽根の部分もとても細かく描かれています。

The rugged feeling of the branches of the pine tree and the straight pine needles are carefully and beautifully drawn one by one. The hawk is also drawn very neatly. The small sparrow that took off underneath is also small, but the wings are also drawn in great detail.

この「温め鳥」というのは、この小さな雀を指します。冬の寒さが厳しい時に、鷹が寒い夜を越すために雀を食べずに、足のところに入れて身体を温めます。

This “warm bird (Nukume-dori)” refers to this little sparrow. When the cold of winter is severe, the hawk does not eat sparrows to survive the cold night, but puts it on the feet to warm the body.

この絵は一晩無事に越せて、雀を解放したところの絵だと思います。鷹は雀に対しての恩返しで、雀が飛び立った方向へ行って狩りはしないそうです。鷹が雀を見送っているようにも見えます。

I think this picture is where the hawk passed safely overnight and released the sparrow. The hawk is a gratitude to the sparrow, and it seems that he does not hunt in the direction in which the sparrow took off. It also looks like a hawk is seeing off a sparrow.

生きるための鳥の知恵とお互いに対する尊重が感じられる絵です。「温め鳥」は小原古邨などたまに見かける題材です。

It is a picture that you can feel the wisdom of birds to live and respect for each other. “Warm bird” is a subject that is sometimes seen, such as paintings by Ohara Koson.

この屏風の1点1点全てが素晴らしい作品なので、この屏風だけで1つの美術展のようでした。

Every single piece of this folding screen is a wonderful work, so it was like an art exhibition with this folding screen alone.

各分野バラバラの配置であったので最後にちょっと分野ごとに写真を並べてみます。各分野、人による得意分野や個性の違いが出ていてそれもまた面白いです。

Since the arrangement was different for each field, I will arrange the photos for each field at the end. It is also interesting that there are differences in each field and each person’s specialty and individuality.

日本画 Japanese painting

彫刻(木・牙)Sculpture (wood / fangs)

金属工芸 Metal crafts

磁器 porcelain

七宝 Cloisonne

この屏風の中の小さな作品でさえ魅力が溢れています。個々の一人一人の作品は素晴らしいものばかりです。それぞれの作家に関して書きたいことはいっぱいありましたが、また別の投稿でご紹介していきたいと思います。

Even the small works in this folding screen are full of charm. The works of each and every one of them are wonderful. I had a lot of things to write about each writer, but I would like to introduce them in another post.

長々とお読みいただきありがとうございました。

Thank you for reading for a long time.

参考文献 References

コメントを残す

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。

CAPTCHA