東京美術学校(監造)「綵観」Small Folding Screen,Saikan 1905


I would like to introduce and summarize the wonderful works I saw at the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum the other day. Thankfully, it was a collection exhibition, so I was able to shoot.


On this day, I went to the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum to see this work, “Saikan”. It is a small folding screen with a height of 33.3 cm, which is by no means a large work.


It’s a work I’ve seen several times at the Meiji Crafts exhibition, but I’m impressed with it no matter how many times I see it. I can see it for hours with this folding screen alone.


I would like to follow the background of the work.

東京美術学校 Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts


The work introduced this time is said to have been made under the supervision of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


“Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts” is the first national art school founded in Japan in 1886 during the Meiji era. When the school opened, it was intended to inherit and protect traditional Japanese art.


At the time of opening, there are four departments: Japanese painting, wood carving, metal engraving, and lacquering (Urushi).


The fact that the lacquering “Urushi” department has existed since the school opened suggests the important position of lacquering as a country in Japan. It can be said that Urushi was one of the important fields for Japan.


Since then, the number of Western painting and design departments has increased, and Western art education has also been added. The departments were reorganized and increased every few years. After World War II, it was included in the current Tokyo University of the Arts


It is the predecessor of the current Faculty of Fine Arts at Tokyo University of the Arts. Currently, most of the campus of Tokyo University of the Arts in Ueno, Tokyo is considered to be the site of the old Tokyo Fine Arts School. It seems that the land of the current Faculty of Music was also the land of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts


Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts has produced many excellent people who will be many imperial artists.


From 1929, the “Exhibition Hall” was already built to display the collections of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, and from 1970, the exhibition can be seen by the general public. After that, the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum was newly established in 1999.


Even today, the Tokyo University of the Arts Museum holds valuable works made during the Tokyo Fine Arts School. It is rented out at art exhibitions and can be seen at exhibitions at museums.

考案者「島田佳矣」Inventor “Yoshinari Shimada”


It is said that “Yoshinari Shimada” played the role of the inventor of this work, “Saikan,” the so-called producer.


Originally from Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture, he has been studying Japanese painting since he was 15 years old in Kanazawa.


After that, in 1889, I entered the Japanese painting department as a first-year student at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. His fellow students include Taikan Yokoyama and Kanzan Shimomura.


After graduating in 1894, he was recommended by Naohiko Masaki, who was the principal of the school at the time, and became a professor in the design department of his alma mater.


As a result, he was engaged in the production of commissioned products to various Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


At that time, the emphasis was on the industrialization of the craft field, so it is thought that the best works were created by deepening the specialization in each field and aggregating them. It can be said that the fusion in the craft field was a work that could only be done by the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


In addition, the imperial family’s request for encouragement and production of art had a great influence on the development of craft technology.


However, since the imperial family originally values spartanness, it was refrained from giving luxurious crafts as well as when the whole country was in trouble such as the great earthquake. Although it was completed, it seems that there were some works that were unknown to the world.

「綵観」とは。。。What is “Saikan”? .. ..


I tried to find out the meaning of the title of this work, “Saikan,” but I couldn’t find any material that clearly showed it. Since “綵” in “綵観” means “beautiful color”, it may mean “seeing color”.


In addition, it seems that there is also a meaning that “綵観” = “綵閣” = “the residence of the hermit”. When it comes to the place where hermits live, it may refer to a place like an utopia away from the world.


In any case, it seems to indicate a “collection of beautiful paintings”.


It seems that there is a similar small folding screen called “Seika”, which was commissioned by the Bank of Japan one year before this “Saikan”. It seems that this work was produced at the request of the art dealer, Chozo Toyama at that time.

帝室技芸員 Imperial Household Artist


In this work, it seems that imperial artists in each field and those who deserve candidates for imperial artists are creating works in their respective fields of specialty. The folding screen has a wooden frame and is luxuriously painted on both sides.


The Imperial Household Artist is what we now call a Living National Treasure.


Now that I’ve shot the work, I’d like to take a look at it in order. The lacquer work is summarized at the end.

橋本雅邦 Gaho Hashimoto (1835-1908)


Right: Japanese painting Gaho Hashimoto “Oshin (Rakan’s painting)”


Gaho Hashimoto is a Kano school painter and imperial artist. He was also involved in the establishment of the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts and was the first person to be selected when the Imperial Household Artist system was established. The title “Oshin” refers to “enlightened saints and monks,” and is another name for the Arhat.


Rakan (monk) is a subject often drawn by Gahō Hashimoto. The state of training in the mountains is drawn, but it is very delicate and detailed on a small screen such as the Kasaya and facial expressions of the person, the rocks and waves of the mountain.

高村光雲 Koun Takamura (1852-1934)


Left side: Sculpture Koun Takamura “Washi (Japanese Chin wood carving)”


Koun Takamura is a Buddhist sculptor, sculptor, and imperial artist. He is a disciple of the Buddhist sculptor, Toun Takamura. It is said that he actively studied the realistic expression of Western art and incorporated it into modern sculpture techniques, even though his life as a wood carver was difficult.

西郷隆盛像 Saigo Takamori Statue


He was active as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. I think that the statue of Takamori Saigo in Ueno Park is famous for his work that is often seen in modern times.


This work is a sculpture depicting the dog breed “Chin” native to Japan. The Japanese Chin is a dog breed loved by the imperial family and the common people, and is said to be the first dog breed to be bred indoors in Japan. Many Japanese dogs at that time were kept outside, so it may have been rare to keep them indoors.

狆 Chin


Also, the fact that he dares to draw the Japanese Chin of an indoor dog in this folding screen also shows his consideration for the small size of this folding screen and its indoor use. (It’s just a guess)

川端玉章Gyokusho Kawabata (1842-1913)


Right: Japanese painting Gyokusho Kawabata “Cold scenery (snow scene Sansui painting)”


Gyokusho Kawabata is a Japanese painter and imperial artist of the Maruyama school. He was a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. He is said to have been a colleague with Gaho Hashimoto mentioned above.


I think it is very interesting to see the Kano school, which is based on Chinese painting style, the Maruyama school, which emphasizes sketching, and the two schools in the same folding screen.

安藤重兵衛 Jyube Ando (1856-1945)


Above left: Cloisonne Ando Jyube “Hagi” (Hagi’s Cloisonne)


Jyubei Ando is a cloisonne craftsman from Nagoya. Although he is not an imperial artist, he is said to have exhibited and won numerous awards at the World’s Fair.


He spread the Japanese Cloisonne under the name of “J.ANDO” and his achievements are highly evaluated. He is also involved in many made-to-order productions for the Imperial family, and it can be said that he had a connection with the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


It is believed that he was commissioned to produce as a person worthy of an imperial artist.


It is a wired cloisonne that is elaborately made up to the small petals of Hagi and each leaf. If you look closely, the part that you can see in the distance is the wireless cloisonne, and the leaves that you can see in the foreground look like thick lines. This work may have been intentionally changed by the author in perspective and the thickness of the line.


In this work, the craftsmanship is condensed on a small screen that you might miss.

海野勝岷 Unno Shomin (1844-1915)


Bottom right: Engraving Shomin Unno “Shucho (silver piece carving of quail)”


Shomin Unno is a goldsmith and imperial artist. He has exhibited many works at the Expo, and he was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


He is good at carving diagonal lines using a knife-shaped chisel with an acute-angled cutting edge “Katagiribori”.


This work is also a “Katagiribori” carving work.


The feathers of the quail are expressed by exquisitely changing the thickness of the carving. The part of the grass below is dug vigorously, and it is a skillful line carving without hesitation and speed.

荒木寛畝 Kanpo Araki (1831-1915)


Left: Japanese painting Kanpo Araki “Nishikiwa (Peacock painting)”


Araki Kanpo is a Japanese painter and imperial artist. He was a disciple and adopted child of Tani Buncho’s painter, Kankai Araki, who learned various elements such as Chinese Nanga, Kano school, and Western painting. He studied Western painting and had a time when he was painting as a Western painter, but he has returned as a Japanese painter. After returning to work as a Japanese painter, he was a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, replacing Masakuni Hashimoto.


He was good at bird-and-flower paintings with detailed depictions. He has drawn many peacock paintings, and has received many awards at Expo, etc., showing his repeated outstanding drawing skills. He continues to paint in his later years and has produced many excellent disciples.

宮川香山 Kozan Miyagawa


On the right side: Ceramic art Kozan Miyagawa “Green fan (porcelain Basho)”


Kozan Miyagawa (first generation) is a ceramist and imperial artist. When I saw it in the exhibition of this work before, it was said to be the work of the first Makuzu Kozan. However, this time, it was said to be the second generation. Unfortunately it is unclear which is correct.


The first Makuzu Kozan is famous for its unique three-dimensional ceramic art called high relief. However, porcelain is also wonderful, and it is said that he devoted himself to the study of porcelain glaze in his later years.


The color of the glaze reproduced like a painting on a small screen is very delicate and does not seem to be porcelain. This is also a work in which the technique is condensed casually. I wonder if this work is from the first generation. .. .. ?? I personally thought.


Makuzu Kozan has been introduced in past posts, so if you are interested, please read it as well.

山田宗美 Sobi Yamada (1871-1916)


Bottom right: Forged Sobi Yamada “Zagyo”(Iron launch of the Japanese common toad)


Sobi Yamada is a forging artist from Ishikawa prefecture and has been appointed as an imperial artist. However, he died shortly before he became an imperial artist.


He has received many awards at the Expo and the Japan Art Association exhibition. It seems that he created his works with his own technique of creating three-dimensional objects such as vases and figurines from a single iron plate.


A fairly realistic toad is three-dimensional and seems to pop out of the screen. The surface of the toad’s skin is reproduced in detail, and it is a work that even feels the moisture and glossy skin color of the toad.

石川光明 Mitsuaki Ishikawa (1852-1913)


Left side: Sculpture Mitsuaki Ishikawa “Shishin (Fang carving of hen)”


Mitsuaki Ishikawa is a sculptor and imperial artist. He is said to have learned painting from Toshinobu Kano and his fang carving from his netsuke master, Masamitsu Kikukawa. He has exhibited and received awards at the Expo, and he was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


This work is a fang carving work. It wasn’t specified, but I think it’s animal fangs or ivory.


It’s hard to see in the photo, but two male and female chickens are carved very finely.

佐竹永湖 Eiko Satake (1835-1909)


Left side: Japanese painting Eiko Satake “Soki (painting of autumn scenery Sansui)”


Eiko Satake is a Japanese painter who is said to have mastered the Tosa school, Kano school, and Tani Buncho school. He was born in the same year as Gaho Hashimoto.


Although not certified as an imperial artist, he has also been active as an award-winning artist at the Expo and as a painter for the Imperial Household Agency.


It is said to be the work when he was 70 years old from the year when this work was announced. The details such as shadow expression are drawn on a small screen. As the title “Soki”, it is a work full of the refreshing world view of autumn.

香川勝廣 Katsuhiro Kagawa (1853-1917)


Above left: Katsuhiro Kagawa, a metal craft, “Purple sleeve (inlay of FuWisteria flowers)”


Katsuhiro Kagawa is a metal craftsman and imperial artist. He is studying painting with Shibata Zeshin, a lacquer artist and Japanese painting artist. He also studied wood carving from Noh mask master Ariyoshi Yoshinaga and metal engraving from Kano Natsuo. He also worked as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


Kagawa Katsuhiro has his own world view that he learned from various people in each field.


He was good at motifs such as flowers and birds. The expression in metal with a three-dimensional effect, which is a combination of “Katagiriboro” and “Takaniku-zogan”(inlay), which was taught directly by Kano Natsuo, is truly a transcendental technique.


In this work, the branches of wisteria are raised with high inlay. It is very realistic and there is a difference in color within the same metal, and I can even feel the purple color of wisteria from a colorless metal.

加藤友太郎 Tomotaro Kato (1851-1916)


Bottom left: Ceramic artist Tomotaro Kato “Karin (porcelain goldfish)”


Tomotaro Kato is from Aichi prefecture and became one of Tokyo’s leading potters after moving to Tokyo. After he moved to Tokyo, he studied under Ryosai Inoue and then mastered the technique under G. Wagner.

号は「陶寿」The name as a potter is “Toju”


Gottfried Wagner was a foreigner from Germany who was hired by the government to teach Western techniques and systems at the time. Under Gottfried Wagner, he learned a lot of chemistry and learned a lot of painting skills on porcelain.


Although he is not certified as an imperial artist, his work has won numerous awards. In particular, the red pigment is said to have been a color that only he could produce. The pale color of the goldfish in this work is exquisite and I can feel the movement.

竹内久一 Hisakazu Takenouchi (1857-1916)


Right: Sculptor Hisakazu Takeuchi “Kaho (Japanese cypress carving)”


Hisakazu Takeuchi is a wood sculptor and Imperial Household Artist. Originally from Tokyo, he started out as a disciple of ivory carving artist Ryusen Horiuchi, and after the death of his master, he began to carve wood while living a difficult life. He loves antiques, and he has done a lot of antique research, old temple research, and so on.


He has also won awards at expositions. He also worked as a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. He is known for his achievements such as repairing and investigating ancient sculptures and training disciples.


In this work, Kaho = 鯤 is a creature that has been transformed into an imaginary large bird called 鵬. I didn’t know until I looked it up, but it looks like a giant imaginary fish that appears in legends in ancient China. There seems to be a legend that this 鯤 can be transformed into a bird. It is finely carved that a fish is flying with a bird’s feather. Perhaps because it is a fish, it has wings like fins.


It is unknown who is on top. It looks like a wind god that causes the wind. This Peng seems to appear in various documents such as Chinese novels.It looks like it’s floating on a golden background. The background of gold is not all gold, but it has a gradation and is very detailed in every detail.


I wanted a little more annotation and explanation, but unfortunately there was only the title and the actual work in the exhibition, so it is just a guess of the range I investigated.

野口小蘋 Shohin Noguchi (1847-1917)


Left side: Japanese painting Shohin Noguchi “Utsurin (summer scenery Sansui)”


Shohin Noguchi is a female Japanese painter who is rare at the time, while all the people I have introduced so far are men. And she has also been appointed as the first female imperial artist.


Originally from Tokushima prefecture, her parents expected her to have a talent for painting from an early age, and she was enlightened by various paintings such as Shijo school, Nanga, and Ukiyo-e, and trained.


She has received numerous awards at expositions and has worked on many works as a painter for the imperial family.


In this work, the mountains with lush summer greenery, the flow of water, etc. are depicted in detail and colorfully. If you look closely, you can see the buildings, bridges, and shadows, and the pine needles and autumn leaves are drawn in detail and delicately.

濤川惣助 Sosuke Namikawa (1847-1910)


Above right: Sosuke Namikawa of Cloisonne “Zuisetsu (Fuji of Cloisonne)”


Sosuke Namikawa is a cloisonne craftsman and imperial artist. From his work as a trader dealing in ceramics, he was fascinated by Cloisonne and turned into a Cloisonne writer.


He invented the non-wired Cloisonne, which removes the planting line before burning the glaze. With outstanding technology, he have realized expressions that were not possible with conventional wired cloisonne.


In addition to exhibiting at the Expo and receiving awards, he also produces many items requested by the Imperial Household Agency. Many of his works have gone abroad as a wonderful cloisonne work representing Japan. I think that it is still being traded at high prices at auctions and the like.


This work even looks like snow and clouds smeared with a brush by a wireless cloisonne. The color scheme is also exquisite.


Many of Sosuke Namikawa’s wonderful works have gone abroad, so it is said that there are not many left in Japan, and many Japanese may not know much about them. There are only two cloisonne imperial artists, Sosuke Namikawa and Haruyuki Namagawa.

大島如雲 Joun Oshima (1858-1940)


Bottom right: Metalcasting Joun Oshima “Ryoun (Casting Dragon)”


Joun Oshima is a metal casting artist from Tokyo. Although he is not an imperial artist, he has exhibited and won numerous works. He was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


“Metal casting” is a metal craft technique that melts metal and puts it in a mold to form it. He inherits this technique from his father and creates very elaborate works.


This work is also made of metal. The title “凌雲Ryoun” is to fly higher than the clouds. In Chinese history books, “凌雲’s will” is a word used to mean high status and transcendental aspiration.


The dragon is depicted as coming out of the clouds. The relaxed feeling of the clouds and the fluttering feeling of the dragon have an indescribable three-dimensional effect and depth. Unlike other forged works, it has a soft feel unique to metal casting.


As for metal, I was surprised to see how different the same metal would be if the technique was different, even though I was an amateur.

蒔絵 Maki-e


I would like to summarize “Maki-e” in “Maki-e”.


First of all, the character of the title is said to be the character written by “Joden Otsuki”. “Joden Otsuki” is not a craftsman because he is a scholar who was active from the Meiji era to the Showa era. I think there was someone who cut the Raden shell based on the character of Joden and inlaid it in a very elaborate manner. From the brilliance of the shellfish, I thought it might be a thin shellfish. There was no mention of who the work of this wonderful Raden was.


It was so natural and beautiful as printed that I forgot that it was a shellfish.

白山松哉 Shosai Shirayama (1853-1923)


Left side: Shosai Shirayama of Maki-e “Kinno (“Ganraiko” Togidashi-Makie)”



Shosai Shirayama is a lacquering”Urushi” craftsman and imperial artist. He was also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.

He seems to have been the best at Togidashi-Makie, so I think that this folding screen was also a work of sharpening lacquer work “Togidashi-Makie”.


The motif of this work, “Ganraiku,” is a name derived from “a plant whose leaves turn red in the season when the geese come,” also known as Amaranthus tricolor.


I didn’t know this plant, so I didn’t know its existence until I saw this Togidashi-Makie work. It is native to tropical Asia and was cultivated in Japan during the Edo period.


The vivid colors and the upright Hagaito are depicted very realistically. It was a work that I can see for a long time, such as the veins of the leaves, the fine color scheme of the color, and the sprinkling condition of the gold powder.


And it was a really beautiful mirror surface, and despite being old, it had a glossy appearance that was just polished.


The Shosai Shirayama / Imperial Household Artist system has been covered in past posts, so if you are interested, please read it together.

川之邊一朝 Iccho Kawanobe (1830-1910)


Right: Iccho Kawanobe of Maki-e “Soyu (Taka-Makie work of Nukume-dori)”


Iccho Kawanobe is a lacquer artist and imperial artist. He was also a lacquer artist in the Edo Shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration, he actively exhibited at the Expo and received high praise. He is also a professor at the Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts.


This work is a work of Togidashi-Makie + Taka-Makie. The background is a Togidashi-Makie work, but the entire surface is sprinkled with gold powder, blue gold powder, and silver powder in places, and it is sharpened cleanly to make it look like a mirror surface.


The rugged feeling of the branches of the pine tree and the straight pine needles are carefully and beautifully drawn one by one. The hawk is also drawn very neatly. The small sparrow that took off underneath is also small, but the wings are also drawn in great detail.


This “warm bird (Nukume-dori)” refers to this little sparrow. When the cold of winter is severe, the hawk does not eat sparrows to survive the cold night, but puts it on the feet to warm the body.


I think this picture is where the hawk passed safely overnight and released the sparrow. The hawk is a gratitude to the sparrow, and it seems that he does not hunt in the direction in which the sparrow took off. It also looks like a hawk is seeing off a sparrow.


It is a picture that you can feel the wisdom of birds to live and respect for each other. “Warm bird” is a subject that is sometimes seen, such as paintings by Ohara Koson.


Every single piece of this folding screen is a wonderful work, so it was like an art exhibition with this folding screen alone.


Since the arrangement was different for each field, I will arrange the photos for each field at the end. It is also interesting that there are differences in each field and each person’s specialty and individuality.

日本画 Japanese painting

彫刻(木・牙)Sculpture (wood / fangs)

金属工芸 Metal crafts

磁器 porcelain

七宝 Cloisonne


Even the small works in this folding screen are full of charm. The works of each and every one of them are wonderful. I had a lot of things to write about each writer, but I would like to introduce them in another post.


Thank you for reading for a long time.

参考文献 References


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